AIDS Update 2013

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December 10, 2012


Mixed media product, 560 pages


0073527661 / 9780073527666


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Main description

AIDS UPDATE 2013 presents a balanced review of current research and information on HIV infection, HIV disease, and AIDS. AIDS UPDATE 2013 places this discussion within a biological, medical, and social framework. Unique to this textbook is the historical presentation of HIV/AIDS in terms of dates, times, and locations, as well as the meaning of those events in scientific, political, and social terms.

Table of contents


About the Author


Thirty Two Years of HIV/AIDS and Counting: A Humanitarian Crisis


Introduction: Histories of Global Pandemics, AIDS, Its Place in History, Overview of HIV/AIDS, International AIDS Conferences, and Means of Remembering—the AIDS Quilt, Candlelight Memorial, and World AIDS Day How much do you Really Know about HIV/AIDS? Three Words Echo around the World: AIDS Crisis Worsens! History of Global Pandemics and Epidemics Fear, Ignorance, and Condemnation: Who Is to Blame? Imagine a World without AIDS Overview of HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS: A Unique Disease HIV/AIDS: A Cause of Death Another Anniversary Other Anniversaries International AIDS Conferences Means of Remembering: Uncommon Threads The 29th Candlelight Memorial Walking to Change the Course of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic—United States Bicycle Riding to Change the Course of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic—United States The AIDS Olympics World AIDS Day: An International Day of Coordinated Action: A Time to Recharge and Reconnect The Future National AIDS Hotlines Useful Internet Addresses Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) 1 AIDS: Defining the Disease and Finding Its Cause The New Millennium AIDS: A Disease or a Syndrome? First Reaction to AIDS: Denial What Causes AIDS? The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Reports Discovery of What Causes AIDS Defining the Illness: AIDS and Surveillance Summary Review Questions 2 What Causes AIDS: Origin of the AIDS Virus The Cause of AIDS: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) HIV Does Not Cause AIDS: Dissidents and Their Cults: A Minority Point of View News Flash 2010—Leading HIV/AIDS Dissident Cleared of Misconduct Following Complaints Made after He and Others Published a 2009 Paper Arguing That There Is "As Yet No Proof That HIV Causes AIDS" Dissidents' Websites (AIDS Doesn't Exist or HIV Isn't the Cause) Summary of HIV/AIDS Dissidents' Viewpoints Evidence That HIV Causes AIDS Origin of HIV: The AIDS Virus Summary on the Origin of HIV Summary Review Questions 3 Biological Characteristics of HIV Viruses Need a Host Cell in Order to Replicate Viruses Are Parasites Viruses Specific to Cell Type How Do Human T4 or CD4+ Lymphocytes Relate to HIV Infection and AIDS? Description of HIV; How It Attaches to a Host Cell and Buds Out of the Cell HIV Fitness The HIV Life Cycle Understanding How HIV Works How HIV Escapes the Infected Cell Distinct Genotypes (Subtypes/Clades) of HIV-1 Worldwide Based on ENV and GAG Proteins Unless Specified, the Information on HIV in this book Relates only to HIV-1 Group M Summary Review Questions 4 Anti-HIV Therapy Better Drugs, Better Technologies, and Lingering Problems Antiretroviral Therapy or ART The Good News About Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Drugs with FDA Approval The HIV Medicine Chest: ART Drugs Receiving FDA Approval Use of Non-Nucleoside Analog Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors FDA-Approved Protease Inhibitors Entry Inhibitors and Problems Integrase Inhibitors Development and Selection of HIV Drug-Resistant Mutants Development of HIV Drug Resistance to Protease Inhibitors How Combination or Combined Drug Therapy Can Reduce the Chance of HIV Drug Resistance Viral Load: Its Relationship to HIV Disease and AIDS Medical Complications Associated with Antiretroviral Therapies (ART) Summary Caution Disclaimer Some HIV/AIDS Therapy Information Hotlines Review Questions 5 The Immunology of HIV Disease/AIDS The Immune System Human Lymphocytes: T Cells and B Cells Why CD4+ Cells Are Important in HIV Infection—What It Means The CD4+ Cell Count—Why It Matters Antibodies and HIV Disease HIV Eradication Currently Not Possible Because of Infection of Latent Resting CD4+ Cells and Immunologic Memory Cells Immune System Dysfunction Original Antigenic Sin The Search for Additional Receptors (Coreceptors) to CD4: Fusin or CXCKR-4 (R-4) CCKR-5 (R-5) Receptor Emergence of HIV Strains that Vary in Their Lethal Abilities In Search of Genetic Resistance to HIV Infection T4 Cell Depletion and Immune Suppression Impact of T4 Cell Depletion Role of Monocytes and Macrophages in HIV Infection Where Do T4 or CD4+ Cells Become HIV Infected? Summary Review Questions 6 Opportunistic Infections and Cancers Associated with HIV Disease/AIDS What Is an Opportunistic Disease? The Prevalence of Opportunistic Diseases Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected People TB: The Leading Cause of Death among HIV-Positive People Worldwide Cancer or Malignancy in HIV/AIDS Patients Disclaimer Summary Review Questions 7 A Profile of Biological Indicators for HIV Disease, Progression to AIDS, and Hope The Prediction What Is Known and What Is Missing from Our Understanding of HIV/AIDS: The New Crisis HIV Disease Defined Stages of HIV Disease (without Drug Therapy) HIV Disease without Symptoms, with Symptoms, and AIDS Production of HIV-Specific Antibodies Prognostic Biological Markers (Biomarkers) Related to AIDS Progression HIV Infection of the Central Nervous System (CNS) Neuropathies (Nerve Tissue Damage) in HIV Disease/AIDS Patients Finally, Hope, a Renewed Hope for the Future of Those Who Are HIV Infected Summary Review Questions 8 Epidemiology and Transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Epidemic/Epidemiology We Must Stop HIV Transmission Now! Epidemiology of HIV Infection Transmission of Two Strains of HIV (HIV-1/HIV-2) The Ten Most Common Fears in the U.S.A. Associated with HIV Transmission—#10 Being the Least and #1 Being the Most Feared Is HIV Transmitted by Insects? HIV Transmission HIV Transmission in Family/Household Settings Noncasual Transmission Gay Men Putting Themselves at High Risk for HIV Infection The Biological Factor Injection-Drug Users and HIV Transmission United States: Heterosexual Injection-Drug Use (IDU) Injection-Drug Use and HIV Infections in Other Countries Other Means of HIV Transmission Influence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) on HIV Transmission and Vice Versa Pediatric Transmission Conclusion National AIDS Resources Summary Challenge Your Assumptions about the HIV Infected Review Questions 9 Preventing the Transmission of HIV The AIDS Generation: "I Knew Everything about It, and I Still Got It!" Prevention, Not Treatment, Is the Least Expensive and Most Effective Way to Reduce the Spread of HIV/AIDS. However, When Faced with Discrimination, Alienation, and Marginalization, People Will Not Disclose Their Risk Factors, Use Condoms, Get Tested for HIV, Seek Treatment, or Talk Openly about HIV/AIDS. Primary Goal of Prevention Global Prevention Antiretroviral Drugs Have an Impact on Prevention, But We Can't Treat Our Way Out of This Pandemic Advancing HIV Prevention: New Strategies for a Changing Epidemic Preventing the Transmission of HIV Sexual Risk Taking Depends on Sexual Activity New Rules to an Old Game: Promoting Safer Sex—Nobody Has a Body to Die For! The Male Condom The Female Condom or Femidom (Vaginal Pouch) An Alternative to Condoms: Vaginal Microbicides (Mi-cro-ba-cides) and Circumcision (Cir-cum-ci-sion) The CAPRISA 004 Study Results Circumcision and the Prevention of HIV Transmission Injection-Drug Use (IDU) and HIV Transmission: The Twin Epidemics HIV Prevention for Injection-Drug Users Prevention of Blood and Blood Product HIV Transmission Infection Control Procedures Sexual Partner Notification: Disclosure The U.S. Federal Government Has Now Adopted Partner Notification as Its Cornerstone in Its Effort to Help Control the Spread of HIV Vaccines The First Human Vaccine: The Impact of Vaccines on Infectious Diseases The Journey Toward an HIV/AIDS Vaccine Now in Its 30th Year (1983–2013) HIV Vaccine Development and Its Role in Prevention How These Two Neutralizing Antibodies Work Types of Experimental HIV Vaccines DNA Vaccine Problems in the Search for HIV Vaccine September 2009—News Broken That a Partially Effective HIV Vaccine Was Found! Summary Five Ways You Can Help Prevent HIV/AIDS Review Questions 10 Prevalence of HIV Infections, AIDS Cases, and Deaths among Select Groups in the United States and in Other Countries A Word about HIV/AIDS Data Year 2013 Formula for Estimating HIV Infections Behavioral Risk Groups and Statistical Evaluation Aging with HIV/AIDS: The Hidden Side of This Crisis in the United States September 18: Annual National HIV/AIDS Aging Awareness Day Estimates of AIDS Cases and HIV Infection Shape of the HIV Pandemic: United States Estimates of Deaths and Years of Potential Life Lost Due to AIDS in the United States Selected Nations/Countries Have Different Epidemics. Each Faces Its Own Reality Fast Facts Canada's Estimated HIV/AIDS Cases through 2012: Population 34,310,000 Mexico's Estimated HIV/AIDS Cases through 2012: Population 115 Million United Kingdom's (UK) Estimated HIV/AIDS Data through 2012: Population 63 Million Global Prevalence and Impact of HIV/AIDS Connected but Separate: Each Country a Different Reality, Different Countries, Similar Questions, but Different Answers, Different Epidemics Workforce—South Africa: Some Examples Education: Teachers and Students—South Africa and Some Countries in Southern Africa Other HIV/AIDS Time Bombs in Asia: India, China, and Russia Summary CDC Releases Atlas Tool to Map, Chart U.S. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Data (January 2012) Review Questions 11 Prevalence of HIV Infection and AIDS Cases among Women and Children Women and HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Is Defining the Lives of Many Millions of Women Female Vulnerability to HIV Every Day a Tragedy Triple Jeopardy Annual International Women's Day—March 8 Women: AIDS and HIV Infections Worldwide Asia-Pacific Region, Over Five Million HIV Positive Women: HIV-Positive and AIDS Cases—United States Childbearing Women: Worldwide Internet Resources Pediatric HIV-Positive and AIDS Cases—United States: A Fight We Can Win! Orphaned Children Due to HIV Infection and AIDS The Phenomenon of AIDS Orphans Summary Review Questions 12 Prevalence of HIV Infection and AIDS among Young Adults, Ages 13 to 24 Global HIV Infections in Young Adults Addressing the AIDS Pandemic among Young Adults: Know-Protect-Talk How Large Is the Young Adult Population in the United States? HIV/AIDS Won't Affect Us! Estimate of HIV-Infected and AIDS Cases among Young Adults in the United States, Globally When Will Routine Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Be the Routine for Adolescents/Young Adults? Summary Internet Other Useful Sources Review Questions 13 Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Determining the Presence of Antibody Produced When HIV Is Present Requests for HIV Testing Reasons for HIV Testing: I Know, I Took the Test Laboratory Methods for Detecting HIV ELISA HIV Antibody Test Western Blot Assay New ELISA Antibody Antigen and RNA Detection Procedures Reveal Early Versus Late HIV Infection Rapid Result HIV Testing Update FDA Approves Home-Collection HIV Antibody Test Kit Some Screening and Confirmatory Antigen-Detection Tests for HIV Deciding Who Should Get an HIV Test and When Why Is HIV Test Information Necessary? Immigration and Travel Ban into the United States Is Lifted Testing, Privacy, Competency, and Informed Consent Summary Review Questions 14 AIDS and Society: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior HIV/AIDS Is a Story in Our Lifetime The New Millennium and HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Is an Unusual Social Disease Discrimination and Stigma vs. Compassion and Support HIV/AIDS Is Here to Stay AIDS Comes to the United States Blame Someone, Deja Vu Fear: Panic and Hysteria over the Spread of HIV/AIDS in the United States Whom Is the General Public to Believe? AIDS Education and Behavior: Dissipating Fear with Education The Character of Society Dealing with Discrimination: The Americans with Disabilities Act Update Federal and Private Sector Financing: Creation of an AIDS Industry U.S. Government Believes HIV/AIDS Is a Threat to National Security Global HIV/AIDS Funding for Underdeveloped Nations Unspent Global Funds? Forms of U.S. Monetary Assistance for HIV/AIDS Summary Review Questions

Answers to Review Questions




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