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AIDS UPDATE 2013 presents a balanced review of current research and information on HIV infection, HIV disease, and AIDS. AIDS UPDATE 2013 places this discussion within a biological, medical, and social framework. Unique to this textbook is the historical presentation of HIV/AIDS in terms of dates, times, and locations, as well as the meaning of those events in scientific, political, and social terms.
Table of contents
AIDS UPDATE 2013
About the Author
AIDS UPDATE 2013
Thirty Two Years of HIV/AIDS and Counting: A Humanitarian Crisis
Introduction: Histories of Global Pandemics, AIDS, Its Place in History, Overview of HIV/AIDS, International AIDS Conferences, and Means of Remembering—the AIDS Quilt, Candlelight Memorial, and World AIDS DayHow much do you Really Know about HIV/AIDS?Three Words Echo around the World: AIDS Crisis Worsens!History of Global Pandemics and EpidemicsFear, Ignorance, and Condemnation: Who Is to Blame?Imagine a World without AIDSOverview of HIV/AIDSHIV/AIDS: A Unique DiseaseHIV/AIDS: A Cause of DeathAnother AnniversaryOther AnniversariesInternational AIDS ConferencesMeans of Remembering: Uncommon ThreadsThe 29th Candlelight MemorialWalking to Change the Course of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic—United StatesBicycle Riding to Change the Course of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic—United StatesThe AIDS OlympicsWorld AIDS Day: An International Day of Coordinated Action: A Time to Recharge and ReconnectThe FutureNational AIDS HotlinesUseful Internet AddressesAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)1 AIDS: Defining the Disease and Finding Its CauseThe New MillenniumAIDS: A Disease or a Syndrome?First Reaction to AIDS: DenialWhat Causes AIDS?The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ReportsDiscovery of What Causes AIDSDefining the Illness: AIDS and SurveillanceSummaryReview Questions2 What Causes AIDS: Origin of the AIDS VirusThe Cause of AIDS: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)HIV Does Not Cause AIDS: Dissidents and Their Cults: A Minority Point of ViewNews Flash 2010—Leading HIV/AIDS Dissident Cleared of Misconduct Following Complaints Made after He and Others Published a 2009 Paper Arguing That There Is "As Yet No Proof That HIV Causes AIDS"Dissidents' Websites (AIDS Doesn't Exist or HIV Isn't the Cause)Summary of HIV/AIDS Dissidents' ViewpointsEvidence That HIV Causes AIDSOrigin of HIV: The AIDS VirusSummary on the Origin of HIVSummaryReview Questions3 Biological Characteristics of HIVViruses Need a Host Cell in Order to ReplicateViruses Are ParasitesViruses Specific to Cell TypeHow Do Human T4 or CD4+ Lymphocytes Relate to HIV Infection and AIDS?Description of HIV; How It Attaches to a Host Cell and Buds Out of the CellHIV FitnessThe HIV Life CycleUnderstanding How HIV WorksHow HIV Escapes the Infected CellDistinct Genotypes (Subtypes/Clades) of HIV-1 Worldwide Based on ENV and GAG ProteinsUnless Specified, the Information on HIV in this book Relates only to HIV-1 Group MSummaryReview Questions4 Anti-HIV TherapyBetter Drugs, Better Technologies, and Lingering ProblemsAntiretroviral Therapy or ARTThe Good News About Antiretroviral Therapy (ART)Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Drugs with FDA ApprovalThe HIV Medicine Chest: ART Drugs Receiving FDA ApprovalUse of Non-Nucleoside Analog Reverse Transcriptase InhibitorsFDA-Approved Protease InhibitorsEntry Inhibitors and ProblemsIntegrase InhibitorsDevelopment and Selection of HIV Drug-Resistant MutantsDevelopment of HIV Drug Resistance to Protease InhibitorsHow Combination or Combined Drug Therapy Can Reduce the Chance of HIV Drug ResistanceViral Load: Its Relationship to HIV Disease and AIDSMedical Complications Associated with Antiretroviral Therapies (ART)SummaryCautionDisclaimerSome HIV/AIDS Therapy Information HotlinesReview Questions5 The Immunology of HIV Disease/AIDSThe Immune SystemHuman Lymphocytes: T Cells and B CellsWhy CD4+ Cells Are Important in HIV Infection—What It MeansThe CD4+ Cell Count—Why It MattersAntibodies and HIV DiseaseHIV Eradication Currently Not Possible Because of Infection of Latent Resting CD4+ Cells and Immunologic Memory CellsImmune System DysfunctionOriginal Antigenic SinThe Search for Additional Receptors (Coreceptors) to CD4: Fusin or CXCKR-4 (R-4)CCKR-5 (R-5) ReceptorEmergence of HIV Strains that Vary in Their Lethal AbilitiesIn Search of Genetic Resistance to HIV InfectionT4 Cell Depletion and Immune SuppressionImpact of T4 Cell DepletionRole of Monocytes and Macrophages in HIV InfectionWhere Do T4 or CD4+ Cells Become HIV Infected?SummaryReview Questions6 Opportunistic Infections and Cancers Associated with HIV Disease/AIDSWhat Is an Opportunistic Disease?The Prevalence of Opportunistic DiseasesOpportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected PeopleTB: The Leading Cause of Death among HIV-Positive People WorldwideCancer or Malignancy in HIV/AIDS PatientsDisclaimerSummaryReview Questions7 A Profile of Biological Indicators for HIV Disease, Progression to AIDS, and HopeThe PredictionWhat Is Known and What Is Missing from Our Understanding of HIV/AIDS: The New CrisisHIV Disease DefinedStages of HIV Disease (without Drug Therapy)HIV Disease without Symptoms, with Symptoms, and AIDSProduction of HIV-Specific AntibodiesPrognostic Biological Markers (Biomarkers) Related to AIDS ProgressionHIV Infection of the Central Nervous System (CNS)Neuropathies (Nerve Tissue Damage) in HIV Disease/AIDS PatientsFinally, Hope, a Renewed Hope for the Future of Those Who Are HIV InfectedSummaryReview Questions8 Epidemiology and Transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency VirusEpidemic/EpidemiologyWe Must Stop HIV Transmission Now!Epidemiology of HIV InfectionTransmission of Two Strains of HIV (HIV-1/HIV-2)The Ten Most Common Fears in the U.S.A. Associated with HIV Transmission—#10 Being the Least and #1 Being the Most FearedIs HIV Transmitted by Insects?HIV TransmissionHIV Transmission in Family/Household SettingsNoncasual TransmissionGay Men Putting Themselves at High Risk for HIV InfectionThe Biological FactorInjection-Drug Users and HIV TransmissionUnited States: Heterosexual Injection-Drug Use (IDU)Injection-Drug Use and HIV Infections in Other CountriesOther Means of HIV TransmissionInfluence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) on HIV Transmission and Vice VersaPediatric TransmissionConclusionNational AIDS ResourcesSummaryChallenge Your Assumptions about the HIV InfectedReview Questions9 Preventing the Transmission of HIVThe AIDS Generation: "I Knew Everything about It, and I Still Got It!"Prevention, Not Treatment, Is the Least Expensive and Most Effective Way to Reduce the Spread of HIV/AIDS. However, When Faced with Discrimination, Alienation, and Marginalization, People Will Not Disclose Their Risk Factors, Use Condoms, Get Tested for HIV, Seek Treatment, or Talk Openly about HIV/AIDS.Primary Goal of PreventionGlobal PreventionAntiretroviral Drugs Have an Impact on Prevention, But We Can't Treat Our Way Out of This PandemicAdvancing HIV Prevention: New Strategies for a Changing EpidemicPreventing the Transmission of HIVSexual Risk Taking Depends on Sexual ActivityNew Rules to an Old Game: Promoting Safer Sex—Nobody Has a Body to Die For!The Male CondomThe Female Condom or Femidom (Vaginal Pouch)An Alternative to Condoms: Vaginal Microbicides (Mi-cro-ba-cides) and Circumcision (Cir-cum-ci-sion)The CAPRISA 004 Study ResultsCircumcision and the Prevention of HIV TransmissionInjection-Drug Use (IDU) and HIV Transmission: The Twin EpidemicsHIV Prevention for Injection-Drug UsersPrevention of Blood and Blood Product HIV TransmissionInfection Control ProceduresSexual Partner Notification: DisclosureThe U.S. Federal Government Has Now Adopted Partner Notification as Its Cornerstone in Its Effort to Help Control the Spread of HIVVaccinesThe First Human Vaccine: The Impact of Vaccines on Infectious DiseasesThe Journey Toward an HIV/AIDS Vaccine Now in Its 30th Year (1983–2013)HIV Vaccine Development and Its Role in PreventionHow These Two Neutralizing Antibodies WorkTypes of Experimental HIV VaccinesDNA VaccineProblems in the Search for HIV VaccineSeptember 2009—News Broken That a Partially Effective HIV Vaccine Was Found!SummaryFive Ways You Can Help Prevent HIV/AIDSReview Questions10 Prevalence of HIV Infections, AIDS Cases, and Deaths among Select Groups in the United States and in Other CountriesA Word about HIV/AIDS DataYear 2013Formula for Estimating HIV InfectionsBehavioral Risk Groups and Statistical EvaluationAging with HIV/AIDS: The Hidden Side of This Crisis in the United StatesSeptember 18: Annual National HIV/AIDS Aging Awareness DayEstimates of AIDS Cases and HIV InfectionShape of the HIV Pandemic: United StatesEstimates of Deaths and Years of Potential Life Lost Due to AIDS in the United StatesSelected Nations/Countries Have Different Epidemics. Each Faces Its Own RealityFast FactsCanada's Estimated HIV/AIDS Cases through 2012: Population 34,310,000Mexico's Estimated HIV/AIDS Cases through 2012: Population 115 MillionUnited Kingdom's (UK) Estimated HIV/AIDS Data through 2012: Population 63 MillionGlobal Prevalence and Impact of HIV/AIDSConnected but Separate: Each Country a Different Reality, Different Countries, Similar Questions, but Different Answers, Different EpidemicsWorkforce—South Africa: Some ExamplesEducation: Teachers and Students—South Africa and Some Countries in Southern AfricaOther HIV/AIDS Time Bombs in Asia: India, China, and RussiaSummaryCDC Releases Atlas Tool to Map, Chart U.S. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Data (January 2012)Review Questions11 Prevalence of HIV Infection and AIDS Cases among Women and ChildrenWomen and HIV/AIDSHIV/AIDS Is Defining the Lives of Many Millions of WomenFemale Vulnerability to HIVEvery Day a TragedyTriple JeopardyAnnual International Women's Day—March 8Women: AIDS and HIV Infections WorldwideAsia-Pacific Region, Over Five Million HIV PositiveWomen: HIV-Positive and AIDS Cases—United StatesChildbearing Women: WorldwideInternet ResourcesPediatric HIV-Positive and AIDS Cases—United States: A Fight We Can Win!Orphaned Children Due to HIV Infection and AIDSThe Phenomenon of AIDS OrphansSummaryReview Questions12 Prevalence of HIV Infection and AIDS among Young Adults, Ages 13 to 24Global HIV Infections in Young AdultsAddressing the AIDS Pandemic among Young Adults: Know-Protect-TalkHow Large Is the Young Adult Population in the United States?HIV/AIDS Won't Affect Us!Estimate of HIV-Infected and AIDS Cases among Young Adults in the United States, GloballyWhen Will Routine Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Be the Routine for Adolescents/Young Adults?SummaryInternetOther Useful SourcesReview Questions13 Testing for Human Immunodeficiency VirusDetermining the Presence of Antibody Produced When HIV Is PresentRequests for HIV TestingReasons for HIV Testing: I Know, I Took the TestLaboratory Methods for Detecting HIVELISA HIV Antibody TestWestern Blot AssayNew ELISA Antibody Antigen and RNA Detection Procedures Reveal Early Versus Late HIV InfectionRapid Result HIV TestingUpdateFDA Approves Home-Collection HIV Antibody Test KitSome Screening and Confirmatory Antigen-Detection Tests for HIVDeciding Who Should Get an HIV Test and WhenWhy Is HIV Test Information Necessary?Immigration and Travel Ban into the United States Is LiftedTesting, Privacy, Competency, and Informed ConsentSummaryReview Questions14 AIDS and Society: Knowledge, Attitudes, and BehaviorHIV/AIDS Is a Story in Our LifetimeThe New Millennium and HIV/AIDSHIV/AIDS Is an Unusual Social DiseaseDiscrimination and Stigma vs. Compassion and SupportHIV/AIDS Is Here to StayAIDS Comes to the United StatesBlame Someone, Deja VuFear: Panic and Hysteria over the Spread of HIV/AIDS in the United StatesWhom Is the General Public to Believe?AIDS Education and Behavior: Dissipating Fear with EducationThe Character of SocietyDealing with Discrimination: The Americans with Disabilities ActUpdateFederal and Private Sector Financing: Creation of an AIDS IndustryU.S. Government Believes HIV/AIDS Is a Threat to National SecurityGlobal HIV/AIDS Funding for Underdeveloped NationsUnspent Global Funds?Forms of U.S. Monetary Assistance for HIV/AIDSSummaryReview Questions