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The atoms first approach provides a consistent and logical method for teaching general chemistry. This approach starts with the fundamental building block of matter, the atom, and uses it as the stepping stone to understanding more complex chemistry topics. Once mastery of the nature of atoms and electrons is achieved, the formation and properties of compounds are developed. Only after the study of matter and the atom will students have sufficient background to fully engage in topics such as stoichiometry, kinetics, equilibrium, and thermodynamics. Thus, the Atoms First method empowers instructors to present the most complete and compelling story of general chemistry.
Julia Burdge is renowned for setting chemistry in interesting, relevant context; and for her engaging, conversational writing style--presenting chemistry in a way students can appreciate and understand; while satisfying instructors' requirements for rigor, accuracy, and comprehensive coverage. Jason Overby teaches general chemistry using an atoms-first approach, bringing a unique perspective and years of experience to the development of this new project. Far from a simple re-ordering of topics, this is a book that will truly meet the needs of the growing atoms-first market. Together, these authors have developed a product with the same appeal, modern and descriptive artwork, sound problem-solving approach, and wide range of end-of-chapter problems that customers have come to expect from Burdge.
This textbook will offer the same engaging writing style, modern and descriptive artwork, sound problem-solving approach and wide range of end-of-chapter problems that customers are accustomed to with the Burdge product. Jason Overby’s involvement with this project was crucial as he has been teaching with this approach for over four years which allowed Julia and Jason to create a product that fits the need for this growing market.
Table of contents
Chapter 1—Chemistry: The Science of Change1.1 The Study of Chemistry1.1 Classification of Matter1.3 The Properties of Matter 1.4 Scientific Measurement1.5 Uncertainty in Measurement1.6 Using Units and Solving ProblemsChapter 2—Atoms and the Periodic Table 2.1 Atoms First2.2 Subatomic Particles and Atomic Structure2.3 Atomic Number, Mass Number, and Isotopes2.4 Average Atomic Mass 2.5 The Periodic Table 2.6 The Mole and Molar MassesChapter 3—Quantum Theory and the Electronic Structure of Atoms3.1 Energy and Energy Changes3.2 The Nature of Light3.3 Quantum Theory3.4 Bohr’s Theory of the Hydrogen Atom3.5 Wave Properties of Matter3.6 Quantum Mechanics3.7 Quantum Numbers3.8 Atomic Orbitals3.9 Electron Configuration3.10 Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table Chapter 4—Periodic Trends of the Elements4.1 Development of the Periodic Table4.2 The Modern Periodic Table4.3 Effective Nuclear Charge4.4 Periodic Trends in Properties of Atoms4.5 Electron Configuration of Ions4.6 Ionic Radius Chapter 5—Ionic and Covalent Compounds5.1 Compounds 5.2 Lewis Dot Symbols 5.3 Ionic Compounds and Bonding5.4 Naming Ions and Ionic Compounds5.5 Covalent Molecules and Bonding5.6 Naming Molecular Compounds5.7 Covalent Bonding in Ionic Species 5.8 Molecular and Formula Masses5.9 Percent Composition of Compounds5.10 The Mole and Molar MassesChapter 6—Representing Molecules6.1 The Octet Rule 6.2 Electronegativity and Polarity6.3 Drawing Lewis Structures6.4 Lewis Structures and Formal Charge6.5 Resonance6.6 Exceptions to the Octet RuleChapter 7—Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories7.1 Molecular Geometry7.2 Molecular Geometry and Polarity7.3 Valence Bond Theory7.4 Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals 7.5 Hybridization in Molecules Containing Multiple Bonds 7.6 Molecular Orbital Theory7.7 Bonding Theories and Descriptions of Molecules with Delocalized BondingChapter 8—Chemical Reactions8.1 Chemical Equations 8.2 Combustion Analysis 8.3 Calculations with Balanced Chemical Equations 8.4 Limiting Reactants8.5 Periodic Trends in Reactivity of the Main Group ElementsChapter 9—Chemical Reactions in Aqueous Solutions9.1 General Properties of Aqueous Solutions9.2 Precipitation Reactions9.3 Acid-Base Reactions9.4 Oxidation–Reduction Reactions9.5 Concentration of Solutions 9.6 Aqueous Reactions and Chemical AnalysisChapter 10—Thermochemistry10.1 Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions10.2 Introduction to Thermodynamics10.3 Enthalpy 10.4 Calorimetry10.5 Hess’s Law10.6 Standard Enthalpies of Formation10.7 Bond Enthalpy and the Stability of Covalent Molecules10.8 Lattice Energy and the Stability of Ionic Solids Chapter 11—Gases11.1 Properties of Gases11.2 The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases11.3 Pressure11.4 The Gas Laws11.5 The Ideal Gas Equation11.6 Real Gases11.7 Gas Mixtures11.8 Reactions with Gaseous Reactants and ProductsChapter 12—Intermolecular Forces and the Physical Properties of Condensed Phases12.1 Intermolecular Forces12.2 Properties of Liquids12.3 Crystal Structure12.4 Types of Crystals12.5 Amorphous Solids12.6 Phase Changes12.7 Phase DiagramsChapter 13—Physical Properties of Solutions13.1 Types of Solutions13.2 A Molecular View of the Solution Process13.3 Concentration Units13.4 Factors that Affect Solubility13.5 Colligative Properties13.6 Calculations Using Colligative Properties13.7 ColloidsChapter 14—Chemical Kinetics14.1 Reaction Rates14.2 Collision Theory of Chemical Reactions14.3 Measuring Reaction Progress and Expressing Reaction Rate14.4 Dependence of Reaction Rate on Reactant Concentration14.5 Dependence of Reactant Concentration on Time14.6 Dependence of Reaction Rate on Temperature14.7 Reaction Mechanisms14.8 CatalysisChapter 15—Chemical Equilibrium15.1 The Concept of Equilibrium15.2 The Equilibrium Constant15.3 Equilibrium Expressions15.4 Using Equilibrium Expressions to Solve Problems15.5 Factors That Affect Chemical EquilibriumChapter 16—Acids and Bases16.1 Brønsted Acids and Bases16.2 Molecular Structure and Acid Strength16.3 The Acid-Base Properties of Water16.4 The pH Scale16.5 Strong Acids and Bases16.6 Weak Acids and Acid Ionization Constants16.7 Weak Bases and Base Ionization Constants16.8 Conjugate Acid–Base Pairs16.9 Diprotic and Polyprotic Acids16.10 Acid–Base Properties of Salt Solutions16.11 Acid–Base Properties of Oxides and Hydroxides16.12 Lewis Acids and BasesChapter 17—Acid-Base Equilibria and Solubility Equilibria17.1 The Common Ion Effect17.2 Buffer Solutions17.3 Acid–Base Titrations17.4 Solubility Equilibria17.5 Factors Affecting Solubility17.6 Separation of Ions Using Differences in SolubilityChapter 18—Entropy, Free Energy, and Equilibrium18.1 Spontaneous Processes18.2 Entropy18.3 Entropy Changes in a System18.4 Entropy Changes in the Universe18.5 Predicting Spontaneity18.6 Free Energy and Chemical Equilibrium18.7 Thermodynamics in Living Systems Chapter 19—Electrochemistry 19.1 Balancing Redox Reactions19.2 Galvanic Cells19.3 Standard Reduction Potentials19.4 Spontaneity of Redox Reactions Under Standard-State Conditions19.5 Spontaneity of Redox Reactions Under Conditions Other than Standard-State19.6 Batteries19.7 Electrolysis19.8 CorrosionChapter 20—Nuclear Chemistry20.1 Nuclei and Nuclear Reactions20.2 Nuclear Stability20.3 Natural Radioactivity20.4 Nuclear Transmutation20.5 Nuclear Fission20.6 Nuclear Fusion20.7 Uses of Isotopes20.8 Biological Effects of Radiation Chapter 21—Metallurgy and the Chemistry of Metals21.1 Occurrence of Metals21.2 Metallurgical Processes21.3 Band Theory of Conductivity21.4 Periodic Trends in Metallic Properties21.5 The Alkali Metals21.6 The Alkaline Earth Metals21.7 AluminumChapter 22—Coordination Chemistry 22.1 Coordination Compounds22.2 Structure of Coordination Compounds22.3 Bonding in Coordination Compounds: Crystal Field Theory22.4 Reactions of Coordination Compounds22.5 Applications of Coordination CompoundsChapter 23—Nonmetallic Elements and Their Compounds23.1 General Properties of Nonmetals23.2 Hydrogen23.3 Carbon23.4 Nitrogen and Phosphorus23.5 Oxygen and Sulfur23.6 The HalogensChapter 24—Organic Chemistry24.1 Why Carbon is Different24.2 Classes of Organic Compounds24.3 Representing Organic Molecules24.4 Isomerism 24.5 Organic Reactions24.6 Organic PolymersChapter 25—Materials25.1 Polymers25.2 Ceramics and Composite Materials25.3 Liquid Crystals25.4 Biomedical Materials 25.5 Nanotechnology25.6 Semiconductors25.7 Superconductors Appendix
Appendix 1 – Mathematical Operations
Appendix 2 – Thermodynamic Data at 1 ATM and 25°C
Appendix 3 – Ionization Constants of Weak Acids and Bases at 25°C